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03.00 - História Natural: Testudo hermanni.

GMELIN (1789)

. [en] Hermann's tortoise
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03.01 - Natural history abstract

Testudo hermanni,  GMELIN, 1789
Id.: 10,204
Testudo hermanni,  GMELIN, 1789
Id.: 23,361
Testudo hermanni,  GMELIN, 1789
Id.: 23,344
Type of environment: Terrestrial*Type of food: carnivore*Type breeding: ovipare*

Their diet is omnivorous opportunistic, dominantly herbivorous, feeding on herbaceous plants rich in fiber, hibernates during the winter underground, in very hot seasons makes aestivation. Make two annual nestings selected nny places, not floodable to make their nests.

 


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03.02 - Habitat and Media

Terrestrial, prefers open oak Mediterranean forests, Mediterranean green forest, this habitat has virtually disappeared, so is relegated to dwell maquis, garrigue, scrub dunes and maritime grassland and agricultural habitats. Wet or encharcables places are avoided.

Note:

Maquis and garrigue: When the Mediterranean green forest is damaged is replaced by a formation of shrubs called maquis or garrigue, if the degradation continues, the next state of degradation meadow and steppe where aromatic plants predominate appears.


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03.03 - Live Modede Vida y Costumbres

Dominantly herbivorous , but some times it feeds on snails , slugs , earthworms , some insects , carrion , Heces , and remains of animals to get calcium , as Huesos and pens .

La vital part of diet consists preferably plants rich in fiber and Bajas in gar and carbohydrates . Among them are her favorite plants llamadas compuestas ( Asteraceae ) as he diente lion ; cerrajas ( Sonchus ) , wild mallow , jaramago ( Capsella bursa - pastoris , Diplotaxis ) llantén ( Plantago ssp ) , Marian thistle ( Silybum marianum ) , and in lesser extent Fabaceae and Ranunculaceae , and once in cuando grasses ( Poaceae ex Gramineae )

This diets are pplemented with fruits that fall from them trees like figs , blackberries , grapes , medlars , mushrooms snails , invertebrates , turtles Heces of otras of the Other remains of animals , including Huesos , pens ...
Ingiere often plants that are toxic to animals otros if it believes, in order to decrease the population of intestinal parasites . ( Tamus communis , Arum sp . , Ranunculus sp . , Digitalis sp .

Las resinous and aromatic plants are rejected , as pins , pistaceas , juniper , Euphorbia , and flat with old hojas in them , you can sign in this guide to plant these plants in s enclores , ofreciéndoles shade and protection .


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03.04 - Foods

Testudo hermanni,  GMELIN, 1789
Id.: 23,244
Testudo hermanni,  GMELIN, 1789
Id.: 29,573
Testudo hermanni,  GMELIN, 1789
Id.: 23,344

Terrestrial, prefers open oak Mediterranean forests, Mediterranean green forest, this habitat has virtually disappeared, so is relegated to dwell maquis, garrigue, scrub dunes and maritime grassland and agricultural habitats. Wet or encharcables places are avoided.

Note:

Maquis and garrigue: When the Mediterranean green forest is damaged is replaced by a formation of shrubs called maquis or garrigue, if the degradation continues, the next state of degradation meadow and steppe where aromatic plants predominate appears.


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03.05 - Reproduction

Testudo hermanni,  GMELIN, 1789
Id.: 23,236
Testudo hermanni,  GMELIN, 1789
Id.: 23,291
Testudo hermanni,  GMELIN, 1789
Id.: 32,795

errestrial , predominantly herbivorous, eating sporadically : worms , snails , insects, carrion. More active early in the morning and last evening , depending on your needs for thermoregulation. Diurnal Hibernates and estiva

Relationship between temperature and time of year activity

His activity throughout the year and day is affected by the thermal conditions and insolation , T hermanni estiva during the hottest mmer and hibernate during the cold months periods. During the day is more active during the first and last hours of the day in mmer , whereas in spring and autumn it does during the middle of the day .

Period of activity :

Begins its active period in spring ( March-April ) , stretching into the fall. Testudo hermanni begins its activity with minimum temperatures Tc ( body temperature ) of 12.3 º C ( Huot - Daubremont 1996) , is in full swing at a Tb of 25 ° C (Meek 1984 , 1988a; Willemsen 1991) and has a preference temperature between 25 and 30 º C ( Cherchi 1956 ; Huot - Daubremont 1996). Females ually nest with ambient temperatures ( 32.1 ° C; Meek 1988b ; Huot - Daubremont 1996)

Activity feed
In the Mediterranean climate in which they live food availability varies greatly , as well as environmental temperatures and hours of nshine daily . Focus their feeding period in spring and autumn , when as a relt of rainfall and annual grasses sprout temperatures during the winter are not fed , and during the heat of the mmer of his power greatly decreases , this is due to that most of the foods available are dry , and the heat forces them to stay in shelters.

Basking Activity :

At 20 ° C what happens in the early hours of the day in mmer almost all individuals are wandering , ( Willemsen 1991; Cheylan2001 ) , and look for places where place himself perpendicular to the n , to quickly raise your body temperature Once the optimal body has the temperature reached or activated or ,
especially in mmer , and only disappear under re-activated at dusk. Young people have a great time less n than adults and are rarely found in full n.

Aestivation , heat protection activity .

Faced with high daytime temperatures , turtles seeking shelter under plants, stubble under the bstrate and remaining inactive during the hottest hours , if temperatures are too high for several days , stay in shelters for several days or weeks to occur aestivation .
Hibernation period of inactivity during the cold season .
It hibernates during the winter months ( November to April ) , during these months is hidden underground, remaining inactive for several months. Hibernation is made with body temperatures below 10 ° C and above 0 ° C Tc have been reported that are able to withstand ambient temperatures below -18 ° C in Provence ( Cheylan 2001 ) and -23 ° C in Munich ( Hediger 1958) ,

Territory and ambulation .

Diurnal their ual territory 1of ambulation is restricted to one to two hectares in the case of females and half males. In Italy similar sexual differentiation ( 4.6 ha in males and in females 7.4 hectares ) , this variability is likely due to food shortages, and breeding periods .

Have enough fidelity to their territories , Home ranges are stable for long periods. After their daily commute to about 100m average return them following an amazing almost straight line, for it was serve his nose . Females made ​​larger displacement than males, especially in breeding season , males extend the length of their journeys in mating season . ( Chelazzi Francisci and 1979; Swingland , et al 1986 . ) ( Chelazzi and francisci 1980). Moreover they are not faithful to shelters , protecting from heat, under any scrub, hollow, or diving under the soil bstrate .


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03.06 - Dangers

  • Disappearance of habitat and fragmentation of populations
  • Excessive bureaucratic protection difficult and costly maintenance in private collections
  • Excessive dependence on government agencies and bsidized
  • Inbreeding in private collections,
  • Forest fires

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03.07 - Protection acctions

  • Disappearance of habitat and fragmentation of populations
  • Excessive bureaucratic protection difficult and costly maintenance in private collections
  • Excessive dependence on government agencies and bsidized
  • Inbreeding in private collections,
  • Forest fires

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Last Update: Sunday, July 28, 2013

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